Flag of Panama

Flag of Panama
Country Panama
Population 4,468,087 (2023)
Area (Km²) 74,340
Сontinent North America
Emoji 🇵🇦
  hex rgb
#DA121A 218, 18, 26
#FFFFFF 255, 255, 255
#072357 7, 35, 87

The flag of Panama was adopted on March 25, 1925 and is a field divided into four parts, where the upper left corner and lower right are white with a five-pointed star of blue and red colors, respectively, and the upper right corner and lower left are red and blue, respectively.

Meaning of the flag of Panama

The stars and quarters are believed to represent competing political parties, and the white color is believed to represent the peace in which they operate.

  • The blue color is associated with the Conservative Party and symbolizes purity and honesty. The oceanic nature of the country can also be associated with this color, but its political meaning is more widespread;
  • Red stands for the Liberal Party, which is also an influential political force. It also symbolizes power and law, indicating structured governance and the rule of law. The presence of red emphasizes the importance of political balance and the rule of law, suggesting confidence and determination;
  • White fields symbolize peace and purity, creating a calm background for the political colors. They also indicate coexistence and cooperation between political parties, creating an environment of political harmony.

The Panamanian presidential flag additionally features the Panamanian coat of arms in the center. 

The coat of arms of Panama
The coat of arms of Panama consists of several elements, each of which has its own meaning. The center of the shield depicts an isthmus with sea and sky, and the sun is hiding behind a mountain, symbolizing the hour of independence. The upper part is divided into two quarters: the left one is represented by a silver field with a sword and a cannon, which signify the rejection of civil wars, and the right one is represented by a red field with a crossed shovel and a hoe, which symbolizes labor. The lower part of the coat of arms is divided in half, the left half of which is represented by a blue field and depicts a horn of plenty, and the right half contains a winged wheel symbolizing progress. Behind the shield is an eagle with outstretched wings, symbolizing sovereignty and holding a ribbon with the inscription "Pro Mundi Beneficio". On the eagle are ten golden stars representing the provinces of the Republic: Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cole, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, Western Panama, Veraguas. National flags are also depicted on the sides of the coat of arms as decorative accessories.

History of the Panama flag

The history of the Panamanian flag dates back to the time of European colonization, when Spain controlled the land. The official flag of the country was then the flag of Spain - two red horizontal stripes along the edges with a yellow stripe twice as wide and the coat of arms in the center. Even when Panama became part of another viceroyalty, the flag did not change. However, when independence movements emerged in South America, Panamanians created their own flags to reflect their identity. 

Greater Colombia was created in 1819, and after ratification by all member states in 1821, it became a sovereign state. It is composed of Colombia, Panama, Venezuela and Ecuador. However, the existence of Greater Colombia lasted only nine years, and its flag was a yellow, blue, and red horizontal tricolor with the coat of arms of Greater Colombia in the center. After the collapse of Greater Colombia, the member states became independent again. Panama became part of Colombia as a result of the division. Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador have kept the same design of the flag of Greater Colombia. This design can be seen on the modern flags of these countries. Although Panama has its own differences in its national flag, it also uses the red and blue colors that were present on the flag of Greater Colombia.

History of the Panama flag

After the breakup of Greater Colombia, the provinces were divided in different ways. Panama and other Colombian provinces became part of the Republic of New Granada. The flag of the new Granada consisted of three vertical stripes of red, blue and yellow in the appropriate sequence. Panama remained in this confederation until 1858, when the confederation collapsed and the federalist period began. In 1863, the country was renamed the United States of Colombia, where each region began to operate independently. The flag of the United States of Colombia was used from 1863 to 1886 and consisted of three horizontal stripes: yellow, blue and red in the corresponding order, where the yellow one was twice as wide as the others. After the centralization of the Republic of New Granada in 1863, it was decided to divide Colombia into federal states.

History of the Panama flag

Colombia and Panama had different flags during the federal period. Colombia had no differences from the flag of the United States of Colombia and continued to use it until 1903, while Panama had a different flag with the coat of arms and the inscription "Sovereign State of Panama". After gaining independence in 1903, Panama changed its flag. 

The flag of Panama was based on the US flag, but with the colors of the Colombian flag. The design had red and yellow stripes symbolizing Spain and a sun representing Panama's position on the continent. However, this design did not become official. In 1903, the modern Panamanian flag was created, but with a blue square in the upper left corner, which is an inverted version of the current flag. Manuel Amador Guerrero, one of the main supporters of Panama's independence, was responsible for the creation of the flag. He asked his son to create a new prototype after the first design was rejected.

History of the Panama flag

The son created the flag of Panama that is used today. He based the flag's shape on Panama's political status and used white as a symbol of peace. The flag was officially raised on November 3, 1903, after Panama gained independence. This day is officially celebrated as the day of Panama's separation from Colombia. To ensure that the white square with a blue star was raised first on the flagpole, it was decided to turn the flag upside down. Amador Guerrero proposed this change to the Panamanian Congress. In 1903, the flag began to be used officially, but the legal approval of this change was received only in 1925. For the past 100 years, the Panamanian flag has remained unchanged.